Cisco Prime – AD login

Intro - CPi with AD LoginIn relation to security, it is not uncommon for users in a company to be asked to change their passwords once every 3.month. It is simply to improve the overall network security. An often overlooked security vulnerability is login to the network devices, which in many situations is configured with static username and password. Hardware - like AP, Switches, Routers or Management equipment) with statically configured credentials will eventually become more and more vulnerable, because more and more users will learn the password. For many reasons AD login is very useful and can simplify the security settings for a bunch of your network devices. Cisco Prime is no exception.In this post we will look at the Cisco Prime infrastructure Read more [...]

Universal Cisco AP

Intro to Cisco universal APToday Cisco must provide several models of the entire AP portfolio. At the time, my best guess is Cisco makes approximately 14 different versions of each AP (-A, -C, -D, -E, -F, -H, -I, -K, -N, -Q, -R, -S, -T, and -Z) Naturally this isn’t very cost-effective and this is properly why Cisco introduced a universal (UX) AP with comes with a worldwide regulatory option, based on geo-location. The regulatory is with this AP dynamic, and adjust automatically according to the AP geo-location. This is very handy (seen from the production line). Cisco now (with the UX AP) only need to produce one AP from each series. For end users, it is unfortunately a little opposite. We now need to make a small part of extra work before Read more [...]

Wireshark and Wireless

IntroWhen troubleshooting networks, many tools can be used. wireshark is one of the more useful. I guess almost any one from the network industry has had the opportunity to play around with it. Sometime (or often) it can be quite hard to read the output from it.When it comes to wireless networks, it is no different. It may be difficult, (even very difficult) to read the Wireshark output. In this post we will try to cover some hints that may come in handy. Wireless networks can overall be divided into two classes:- A data class which corresponds to the IEEE 802.11 data frames.- A management class which corresponds to the IEEE 802.11 management frames.The Data PartEnglishWiresharkDescriptionExampleeq==Equalip.src eq!=Not Read more [...]

Air Time Fairness

Intro to Cisco Air Time Fairness (ATF)Some days ago, I had the opportunity to play with a beta release ( It’s a beta for the coming 8.1 MR1 release (planned Aug. 2015). The software was installed on a 5508 controller.In this release, a new feature is brought into the Wireless game for QoS (on the Wireless side). The method is called Air Time Fairness (ATF).With wireless networking, the transmission medium is via radio waves that transmit data at varying rates. Instead of regulating egress bandwidth, it could makes more sense to regulate the amount of airtime needed to transmit frames. Air Time Fairness (ATF) is a form of wireless QoS that regulates downlink airtime. (Note. only Downlink)Before a frame is transmitted, the ATF budget Read more [...]

Cisco Spectrum Expert

Wireless site survey (with Spectrum Expert) The introduction of wireless networks may cause needs for different evaluations of the radio environment. A “Normal” site survey consists in to two different measurements. First, a noise analysis of the needed radio frequency (2.4 GHz and/or the 5 GHz band) after which a signal measurement is required. In this article, you will find some (hopefully) useful information about the Cisco Spectrum Expert feature.IMPORTANT! A Wireless site survey, regardless of type, is a snapshot. Buildings Change and changes in layout, technical equipment and so on, may require adjustments of positions transmit power and channel selection. This will be an ongoing process in the networks lifespan. Cisco Spectrum Read more [...]

Cisco Prime Infrastructure 2.2

On the way to Prime 2.2?The version 2.2 has been around for some time now. If you have not had time to upgrade or have been concerned , I can highly recommend version 2.2 over previous versions of Cisco Prime. A number of new initiatives are to be found in this release. · L2 topology. · Better Ui interface performance.If you have a Cisco prime infrastructure (CPi) version 1,4, 2.0, or 2.1 and wants to upgrade to version 2.2 this page might help you on the wayThe Prime version 2.2 goes by the way under the name Maksimus. There is no option for "inline" upgrade and a Backup > Restore = only option.supported versionCPi ver. 1.4 ( ver. 2.1 ( version earlier than this will require an upgrade before upgrading to ver. Read more [...]

WLC ver. New interface

A completely new interface is introduced in this release. This post will show some of the new features. The New interface. Network Summary Access Points Clients The network summery also show information for operating system used by the online clients and also device information (Apple/Android etc.) will show up.  I will guess these information is “picked up” by the local profiling configured on this WLC. Wireless Dashboard AP Performance Client Performance Best Practices for: Infrastructure (11) Security (9) RF Management (7) In total 27 Best Practices settings. Ok let’s take  look.   Figure 1The Network Summary A click on the will hide or show the left-panel menu. The Read more [...]

WiFi, who what why

FCC (Federal Communications Commission) Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an Independent agencies of the US Government. Purpose: To regulate interstate communication via radio, television, wireless networks, like WiFi and satellite based networks. FCC works with six goals: Broadband, Competition, Spectrum, Media, Public safety and "homeland" security. IEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is an international nonprofit organization, which (Very generally said) working with technology in relation to the Electrical installations. ISO ( International Organization for Standardization ) ISO Organisationen is an International cooperation agreement, which is composed of representatives from different countries . purpose: Read more [...]

WiFi & QoS

802.11 With the 802.11 protocol, it is not possible to prioritize between packets. Other methods must be used to successfully implement QoS. In this post you can gain some practical knowledge about how things (in overall terms) are brought together. Distributed coordinated function (DCF) Without going into too detailed explanation about wireless vs. wired networks , we will just relate to wireless network use CSMA/CA instead of the wired methoud CSMA/CD. Why is that you might ask yourself? The wireless system is a distributed system which means that all “players” (Client and AP) share the overall media. The AP cannot control who sends a packet first. It works by the method called Distributed Coordinated Function (DCF). Every Read more [...]


When it comes to AES vs TKIP for network encryption, there is confusion over which protocol is superior. Each protocol has unique strengths and weaknesses that make them more or less appropriate for certain applications. Despite the fact that AES and TKIP are designed to handle different situations, discoveries about one of these protocols mean it is far less appropriate for use where security is important.   What Is AES? AES stands for Advanced Encryption Standard; it is a set of ciphers designed to prevent attacks on wireless networks. AES is available in block ciphers of either 128, 192 or 256 bits depending on the hardware you intend to use with it. In the networking field, AES is considered to be Read more [...]